Kherson, Mariupol and Berdyansk are three ports occupied by Russian troops. The Russians use Ukrainian enterprises to obtain military equipment from Russia. Also, the occupiers steal grain from farmers or large agricultural enterprises and send it through captured ports to third countries.
Ukrainian sea ports have been blocked by Russian navy forces since February 24th, 2022. The rapid closure of seaports caused major logistics disruption not only in Ukraine but in the whole Black Sea region and Eastern Europe.
The planning system applied by Ukrzaliznytsia with a one-month horizon for grain export transportation makes it impossible for farmers to fulfill export contracts in good faith and, ultimately, will have a negative effect on the work of the UZ itself.
Control over the island remains important not only for Ukraine, but also for NATO countries, in particular Romania. Analysts continue to study the geostrategic significance of Zmiinyi, the possibilities for its protection, and are considering means that will help to prevent a re-occupation by russia.
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